State of Ohio First Grade Social Studies Common Core Standards 2012
Historical Thinking and Skills
Historical thinking begins with a clear sense of time – past, present and future – and becomes more precise as students’ progress. Historical thinking includes skills such as locating, researching, analyzing and interpreting primary and secondary sources so that students can begin to understand the relationships among events and draw conclusions.
1. Time can be divided into categories (e.g., months of the year, past, present and future).
2. Photographs, letters, artifacts and books can be used to learn about the past.
Ideas and events from the past have shaped the world as it is today. The actions of individuals and groups have made a difference in the lives of others.
3. The way basic human needs are met has changed over time.
Spatial Thinking and Skills
Spatial thinking examines the relationships among people, places and environments by mapping and graphing geographic data. Geographic data are compiled, organized, stored and made visible using traditional and geospatial technologies. Children need to be able to access, read, interpret and create maps and other geographic representations as tools of analysis.
4. Maps can be used to locate and identify places.
Places and Regions
A place is a location having distinctive characteristics, which give it meaning and character and distinguish it from other locations. A region is an area with one or more common characteristics, which give it a measure of homogeneity and make it different from surrounding areas. Regions and places are human constructs.
5. Places are distinctive because of their physical characteristics (landforms and bodies of water) and human characteristics (structures built by people).
Human systems represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface. The growth, distribution and movements of people are driving forces behind human and physical events. Geographers study patterns in cultures and the changes that result from human processes, migrations and the diffusion of new cultural traits.
6. Families interact with the physical environment differently in different times and places.
7. Diverse cultural practices address basic human needs in various ways and may change over time.
Civic Participation and Skills
Civic participation embraces the ideal that an individual actively engages in his or her community, state or nation for the common good. Students need to practice effective communication skills including negotiation, compromise and collaboration. Skills in accessing and analyzing information are essential for citizens in a democracy.
8. Individuals are accountable for their actions.
9. Collaboration requires group members to respect the rights and opinions of others.
Rules and Laws
Rules play an important role in guiding behavior and establishing order in families, classrooms and organizations. Laws are enacted by governments to perform similar functions.
10. Rules exist in different settings. The principles of fairness should guide rules and the consequences for breaking rules.
There are not enough resources to produce all the goods and services that people desire.
11. Wants are unlimited and resources are limited. Therefore, people make choices because they
cannot have everything they want.
Production and Consumption
Production is the act of combining natural resources, human resources, capital goods and entrepreneurship to make goods and services. Consumption is the use of goods and services.
12. People produce and consume goods and services in the community.
Markets exist when buyers and sellers interact. This interaction determines market prices and thereby allocates scarce resources, goods and services.
13. People trade to obtain goods and services they want.
Financial literacy is the ability of individuals to use knowledge and skills to manage limited financial resources effectively for lifetime financial security.
14. Currency is used as a means of economic exchange.